Robot surgery. Surgeon (lower left) performing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on a patient's heart using da Vinci, a remotely-controlled robot surgeon (centre right). The surgeon views a three- dimensional image of the operation site in the black box at left. The robot arms are controlled using instruments under the box. An endoscopic view of the area from the robot is seen at upper right. Another surgeon is examining chest X-rays at upper left. The da Vinci system allows precise control of surgical tools through an incision just 1cm wide, with greater control than manual MIS procedures. Da Vinci was designed by Intuitive Surgical Incorporated, based in California, USA.