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Research on the human genome: Dr Peter Lichter, of Yale Medical School, using a light microscope to do fine mapping of long DNA fragments on human chromosomes using a technique known as non- radioactive in-situ hybridization. The chromosomes appear in red on the monitor screen, whilst the DNA fragments (called probes) appear yellow/green. Mapping chromosomes may be regarded as a physical survey of each chromosome to find the location of genes or other markers. Mapping & sequencing are the two main phases of the genome project; an ambitious plan to build a complete blueprint of human genetic information..Human Genome Project.